A guide to digital disinformation, manufactured consent, popular support of the revolution, and the effects of the embargo.

To say that the impacts of the blockade in Cuba amidst the COVID-19 pandemic have been serious would be an understatement. The small island has been nothing short of incredible in regards to holding off the virus for a prolonged period, all the while helping other countries such as Italy and surrounding neighbors via the Henry Reeve International Medical Brigade. Despite being under a brutal embargo from the United States, the country has also developed and deployed its own vaccines, including Soberana 02 and Abdala.

Photo of Havana, Cuba by Jeremy Zero on Unsplash

Despite this, the virus has overwhelmed the country in recent months (and especially in recent…


Germany is still heavily divided among various lines, even after over 30 years following the annexation of East Germany.

Whenever the argument between socialism and capitalism manifests itself through any medium, the most commonly pointed to example tends to be the study of both the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Anti-communists specifically love this comparison because it conforms to their (incorrect) preconceived notion that the socialist East was evil and poor, while the capitalist West was free and flourishing.

An image of the building that hosted the People’s Chamber (Volkskammer). (Dietmar Rabich / CC BY-SA 4.0)

This concept is rather foolish for a multitude of reasons (including pre-World War II [WWII] industrial development, American assistance post-WWII, and more), but that is not the point of this article. In 1990, the…


A review of the dangerous views presented by their editorial board regarding the popularly re-elected MAS-IPSP government.

In recent years, domestic Bolivian politics have been covered in a manner that demonstrates the biases of mainstream Western media, specifically demonizing the style of governance of the Movement for Socialism (MAS-IPSP) party in the country. Following the coup d’etat against then-President Evo Morales, I wrote several articles highlighting the poor media coverage of events unfolding, democratic regression under the illegitimate government of Jeanine Áñez, and the eventual return of democracy in late 2020.

Max Borge / (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Despite concerns of electoral fraud, the MAS-IPSP did manage to successfully win the election in a landslide, featuring the largest number of votes that the party…


The ways in which democratic processes are analyzed within many academic circles are fundamentally flawed.

Across nearly all of the academic departments around the world, questions of democracy are consistently brought up. These questions tend to focus on the elements that create democracy — particularly liberal democracy, which has its roots in the ideas and conceptions put forth by English philosophers such as John Locke. As such, the question of property also tends to find itself within the question of democracy.

The Australian House of Representatives. (Photo by Aditya Joshi on Unsplash)

Typically, an introductory political science class will feature the works of bourgeois scholars such as Samuel P. Huntington and others who specialize in the perceived transition from authoritarian leadership (as per liberal understandings of…


Contrary to popular belief, not everyone hated their lives under socialism during the Cold War.

Anytime that anyone decides to look up information surrounding socialist projects throughout history, they are bombarded with inaccurate information about said projects, as well as the countless individual testimonies that portray life in countries like the German Democratic Republic (GDR) or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as astronomically horrible.

A photograph of the Berlin Wall (by Potsdamer Platz) in November 1975. (Edward Valachovic / CC BY-SA 2.0)

A constant barrage of insults ranging from the concept of “food insecurity” to “state oppression” is inevitable when attempting to find personal accounts of life in these countries and other similarly positioned ones. …


Pitting the working class against each other reaches new heights through both immigration and globalization.

There tends to be much discourse surrounding the function and utility of immigrants as members of the proletariat. Reactionaries often describe these new additions to the national working class as individuals who are not needed and are, supposedly, taking the jobs from the already-existing proletariat. This is, for other purposes, not a fact. However, that is not the point of the message that is to be portrayed here.

Photo by Nitish Meena on Unsplash

On the other hand, liberals and the perceived ‘left’ within most Western countries tend to argue that these (working class) immigrants are necessary to further develop goods, services, and other types of…


COVID-19 and sanctions have created dire conditions for the Venezuelan people, despite the further development of South-South cooperation.

The coronavirus pandemic — while rather old at this point — has persisted throughout much of the world. While countries like China, New Zealand, and Vietnam handled the highly precarious situation with very high degrees of effectiveness, countries like the United Kingdom and the United States continue to struggle with government mismanagement and new strains. Keeping this in mind, economic warfare is consistently at play against countries such as Iran and Venezuela, hindering their ability to combat the virus.

John Bolton and Steven Mnuchin introducing sanctions against PDVSA in 2019. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

The initial spreading phase of COVID-19 has long been over, with preventative measures being taken by most people in one way…


The deterioration of capitalism takes a major toll on ordinary working class civilians, even when the new year rolls around.

Photo by Danil Aksenov on Unsplash

Every late December, the holiday season largely comes to a close. This is then prompted by the desire for a prosperous new year, especially when it feels as though the year that has ended was, for lack of a better term, just dreadful. It is plastered on advertisements across concrete jungles, on the Facebook feeds of anyone aged 20 or older, as well as through countless blog posts talking about how a new year means a “new me”.

Of course, 2020 has certainly been different than other years, given the presence and persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The inability for…


Many articles published in most mainstream sources tend to be perceived as impartial, but this a false reality.

It goes without saying that in the era of news being available at the tip of your finger, misinformation is abundant. When scrolling through Facebook or Twitter, copious amounts of information is being processed by your mind, even if that information is fake. Usually, misinformation is understood as the manufacturing of content that appears to be real, but is false (or, at the very least, misleading) in actuality. Perhaps the idea of a troll farm comes to mind, or maybe news being pumped out of ‘biased’ state-funded news outlets.

However, some of the biggest perpetrators of producing fake news are…


First, the bourgeoisie said it would be impossible. Then they moved to other tactics.

Before the October Revolution in the Russian Empire, many bourgeois scholars stated that socialism would be impossible to implement, going as far as exclaiming that it would be undesirable for the economic system to exist in any capacity regardless. This would lead to liberals embarking on the belief that capital and labour both need each other, when this is most definitely not the case.

Right before one of the last May Day celebrations in the USSR. (Photo by Steve Harvey on Unsplash)

However, following the success of the revolution and the subsequent establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the bourgeoisie throughout the world feared an educated and united proletarian mass pitted against them. …

Martin Barakov

A South Slav writing about Eastern Europe and Latin America.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store